Sinusitis is the medical term for sinusitis. Every 7th person in Germany has sinusitis once a year – often as the remnant of a cold. More about symptoms, causes, and therapy of sinusitis.

Definition

Sinusitis is the technical term for sinusitis. Sinusitis can be acute or chronic. Depending on the inflamed sinus there are:

  • Sinusitis frontalis: inflammation of the frontal sinuses (right and left above the root of the nose above the eyebrows)
  • Maxillary sinusitis: inflammation of the maxillary sinuses (right and left of the nose)
  • Ethomid sinusitis: inflammation of the ethmoid labyrinth (between the nose and the inner corner of the eye)
  • Sphenoidal sinusitis: Inflammation of the sphenoid sinus (right and left behind the ethmoidal cells).

Complications arise when sinusitis spreads to neighboring structures, such as the meninges, the brain, and the ears and eye sockets. Then there are sometimes dangerous suppurations with meningitis, seizures, visual impairment, and middle ear infections.

Symptoms

Typical symptoms of acute sinusitis are a headache and a feeling of pressure on the face – depending on the affected cavity in the forehead, jaw and nose area and around the eyes. The feeling of pressure often increases during bending, sneezing and coughing as well as during shaking. Sometimes the sense of smell and nasal breathing are limited.

In some patients, the nose feels “closed” – as if blocked. Sometimes the nasal secretion also runs down the throat permanently. Fever and fatigue, as well as flu symptoms, are also possible. The symptoms can be unilateral or bilateral.

Usually, sinusitis heals after a few weeks (maximum of eight weeks). If they continue to exist or are more likely to have sinusitis (more than four times a year), physicians speak of chronic sinusitis.

symptoms-of-chronic-sinusitis

 

Symptoms Of Chronic Sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis often results from unhealed acute sinusitis. The symptoms are much weaker than with acute sinusitis. Chronic sinusitis is characterized by a long-lasting odor loss and permanent, dull pressure on the face. Inflammatory polyps often grow in the paranasal sinuses. Endoscopically, often only a slight swelling of the nasal mucosa and a thin, clear secretion in chronic sinusitis are recognizable.

Causes

Sinusitis is often preceded by a cold. It is increasingly produced nasal mucus and the mucous membranes swell. Sometimes the small passages between nose and paranasal sinuses swell. If they are completely blocked, the paranasal sinuses are no longer ventilated, the secretion can not drain and jams back. This warm, moist environment is an ideal breeding ground for germs such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi.

Viral sinusitis is often the result of bacterial colonization with influenza, parainfluenza or rhinoviruses. In bacterial sinusitis Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococci, staphylococci, and streptococci are often the trigger. Even fungi can cause sinusitis.

Non-Infectious Causes Of Sinusitis

Ventilation disorders of the paranasal sinuses and thus a disturbed discharge of secretion may also have non-infectious causes. These are, for example, anatomical features such as nasal polyps (benign mucosal growths), a curved nasal septum (so-called septal deviation), large nasal concha, cystic fibrosis or even tumors.

Sinusitis can also occur as part of allergic disease (such as hay fever or house dust allergy). Furthermore, there is the so-called dentogenic, so dental-related, sinusitis. This pathogens, for example, after dental procedures, tooth root inflammation or sinus fistulas reach the paranasal sinuses.

A special form of the sinusitis is the Samter syndrome (also analgesic intolerance syndrome). Sinusitis occurs simultaneously with intolerance to acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA), bronchial asthma and nasal polyps.

Investigation

As a rule, the doctor already diagnoses sinusitis based on the typical symptoms. As a backup, he taps and presses certain areas of the face and inspects the mouth, throat, and throat. Occasionally blood and secretion examinations, allergy tests and imaging procedures (such as nasal reflection, X-ray and computed tomography) are used.

Treatment

Usually, the doctor will recommend decongestant nasal drops with drugs such as naphazoline, oxymetazoline, tramazoline, and xylometazoline. However, these should not be applied too long and absolutely according to the regulations. Sometimes, the medical treatment of sinusitis also includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and piroxicam or glucocorticoids (cortisone preparations).

In purulent sinusitis, antibiotics (especially tetracyclines and cephalosporins) are the drugs of choice.

Short and microwave radiation can help cure sinusitis.

In some cases, such as anatomical features, nasal polyps, or nasal septum curvatures, surgery can help.

Home Remedies For Sinusitis

Home remedies for sinusitis support drug therapy and help to relieve the symptoms. The most important home remedy is an adequate supply of fluid. At least 2 liters should be consumed daily. So you liquefy tough secretions, which diluted can drain more easily. You can support the secretion drainage with humid room air as well as steam baths with herbal additives. Anis, chamomile flowers, myrtol, primrose root, thyme herb, and eucalyptus oil are particularly suitable.

No Steam Baths And Essential Oils In Infants And Toddlers

Caution: Infants and toddlers should not use steam baths due to the risk of scalding and, above all, should not use any menthol-containing substances or strong-smelling essential oils. Red light and warmth are better in this age group. Warm linseed or cherry stone pillows on the forehead are often perceived as beneficial.

Other Home Remedies For Adults

  • inhale salt or sea salt with Emser or absorb the saline liquid with the nostril or rinse your nose
  • heat rising footbaths with salt water (start with about 34 degrees warm water and increase to 41 degrees)
  • eat a teaspoon of fresh horseradish three times a day or drink horseradish juice
  • Place horseradish and lemon toppings on forehead or quark toppings on forehead and cheeks
  • Warm potato wraps on forehead and nose several times a day
  • Fix the garlic and lemon slices under the soles of the feet with warm wool socks
  • Herbal teas distributed throughout the day (such as anise, fennel, and thyme)
  • put a bowl of shredded onion on the bedside table
  • Eat chicken soup for attacks of influenza-like infections.

Homeopathy In Sinusitis

For sinusitis the following homeopathic remedies are recommended:

  • Cinnabaris: with oppressive pain at the root of the nose, radiation to the eye, severe pressure pain when stopping
  • Hepar sulfuris: in cold and touch-sensitive patients, complaints worsen by drafts
  • Hydrastis Canadensis: large amount of secretions, headache over the left eye, complaints worsen in the warm room
  • Potassium biochromicum: with thick yellow-green secretions, pressure at the root of the nose, mucus flow in the throat
  • Luffa operculata: in frontal headache, dry and sensitive nasal mucous membranes and crusts in the nose
  • Mercurius solubilis: with purulent nasal secretions, bad breath, and covered tongue, complaints worsen by warmth of the bed.

Prevention

To prevent sinusitis, you should avoid colds, sleep well, strengthen your immune system, not smoke, maintain a balanced and fresh diet, move a lot and strive for normal weight.

Watch out for proper whining. It works like this:

  • Under no circumstances trumpet with pressure in the handkerchief. So you squeeze the nasal mucus back into the sinuses. Better careful and with little pressure.
  • Give in to sneezing and do not suppress it

Even if it does not belong: preferably “pull up nose”, the secretion is transported into the throat and swallowed.

 

 

Relaxation is important for healthy sleep. It is the biological counterpart to the activities of the day. Go to sleep with relaxation.

Relaxation is essential for healthy sleep. Relaxation is the biological counterpart to the activities of the day. In the state of relaxation, the body releases the soothing feel-good hormone serotonin, which in the pineal gland is converted into the sleep and night hormone melatonin. Stress hormones such as adrenaline, however, are broken down.

It does not matter how you find relaxation. Some people do not need to try to relax at all. In view of the increasingly dense requirements and sensory overload, many people are now more and more difficult.

Relax – But Do Not Stimulate

Good for relaxing is a lot in which you feel comfortable. However, the restriction is that these activities should not be stimulating. If, for example, you feel well while exercising, you can certainly relax. On the other hand, sport stimulates the metabolism and circulation – and that can disturb your sleep. After exercising for evening relaxation, wait for 2 to 3 hours before going to sleep. In contrast to sports, the following suggestions for relaxation exercises are particularly suitable for half an hour before going to bed or the first few minutes in bed.

relaxation-techniques-for-a-peaceful-sleep

 

Relaxed By Switching Off: Daily Balance

If you can switch off, you can usually relax well too – and quickly get to sleep. If it is above all the thoughts of the next day that will not let you sleep, you should make a daily balance as part of your sleep ritual. In the evening, take 10 or 15 minutes to draw a conclusion from the past day. Take a look back in the form of a diary – or just summarize in a list what you did during the day – and what you could not do. Also, plan the next day. Write down what you want to do when, and how to do it best.

Why is that good? If you have a plan for the next day, you will not have to worry about what to expect in bed. Because you have prepared for the next day. Now you can relax – and in the morning gather the strength you need for the next day. And if you’re worried, remember your plan for the next day. And then turn around – and continue to sleep.

Falling Asleep With Relaxation Techniques

There are a variety of relaxation techniques that can help you get your sleep done. For example, progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic training, yoga or breathing exercises – Visit a course at your sports club or gym, in the health center in your city or ask your health insurance provider for appropriate providers. But often you do not even need such a course. In many cases, simple exercises help. If you try these exercises, please do not throw the shotgun after the first attempt. It takes between 4 and 10 attempts for the exercises to take effect – and you will find it easy to sleep.

With Resolutions Relaxed To Sleep

From the autogenic training borrowed are simple autosuggestions, with which you can relax and tune to sleep. Basically, this is a variation of sheep counting. They just do not count sheep, but repeat a calming thought. “I am calm and relaxed” or “My limbs become heavy” and “I am tired, very tired” are intentions that help you to sleep after some practice.

Relaxed In Sleep With Calm Breathing

Breathing allows you to control emotions in a targeted way. Not for nothing does it mean: first take a deep breath – before we make a thoughtless decision and do something that harms us or others unnecessarily. And just as you use your breath to calm yourself in the excitement or anger, you can do so before you go to sleep. In the ideal case, you do not need to do more than consciously perceive your breathing – and perhaps steer a bit.

Just breathe deeply through the nose into the abdomen. Whether you breathe in the stomach, check with your hands. Lay your hands relaxed on your stomach and feel the belly rise. After inhaling, exhale very slowly and slowly through the mouth again. Take a short break – and then inhale again through the nose until your hands lift. Many people fall asleep after a few strokes with this recessed abdominal breathing.

Combine Breathing And Intentions

You can combine deepened abdominal breathing with mental intentions. For example, when inhaling, think of “I breathe calm” and exhale “I exhale restlessness”. In autogenic training, such intentions are also called formulas. When choosing the right formula for you, you are free – it should only be reassuring.

 

 

Back pain again and again – and nothing helps? Then the symptoms could have a gynecological cause. The visit to the gynecologist brings clarity.

Back pain again and again – for weeks Vera Müller from Wiesbaden toiled around with it. What she does not know – the cause of her complaints is a gynecological disease. “In particular, pain that surrounds the groin, the sacrum, and the anterior abdominal wall like a belt is evidence of a gynecological cause,” Dr. Klaus König from the professional association of gynecologists (BVF) in Munich. “Back pain can also occur during pregnancy, during and after the hormone change during menopause. These include changes in the position of the uterus, gynecological tumors, chronic inflammation and diseases in the area of the small pelvis, “says the expert.

ask-your-gynecologist

Back pain again and again – fibroids can be to blame

Women should be aware if they have recurrent back pain that is cyclical and increases on the days before menstruation. Possible cause may be fibroids – benign tissue growths in or on the uterus. In most cases, the gynecologist suggests a hormone treatment with tablets in such cases. Gentle is a new therapy in which fibroids are starved: In the method known as myoma embolization are injected under local anesthesia sand beads sized plastic beads into the blood vessels. There they block the pathway for nutrient delivery, and the fibroid shrinks. The therapy is performed inpatient and paid by health insurance.

Again and again back pain? Endometriosis can also be a trigger

Gynecological back pain triggers include endometriosis. Here, parts of the uterus settle, for example, on the ovaries or in the abdomen. They always lead to back pain during and before menstruation. Depending on the location of the Endometrioseherde the growths of the endometrium can be surgically removed by the gynecologist or treated with hormones. In case of mild endometriosis, it is often helpful to take a birth control pill with a high proportion of progestogen

Gentle help against the pain

What helps if women always suffer back pain? Relief in acute cases promises a combination with the painkiller Paracetamol or a warm hay flower sack, which is placed on the stomach. Relaxation exercises such as QiGong or Tai Chi also help to relieve the pain and harmonize the body.

 

 

Home remedies make parents’ hearts beat faster: they promise relief before the child has to take a drug. Which ones really work, which doctors would even apply to their offspring?

In many families, home remedies have been handed down from generation to generation. And although there are medicines for most ailments today, many parents find that grandma’s tips work just as well. This may not be proven in detail – experts can explain the phenomenon anyway.

“Basically, home remedies are virtually unexplored,” says Rainer Stange, an internist, and expert on naturopathic treatment at Immanuel Hospital Berlin. But it does not just have to do with the individual active ingredients anyway. The children feel the attention of the parents, explains Hermann Josef Kahl, press spokesman of the professional association of pediatricians. “The psychological effect of such measures should not be underestimated.”

home-remedies-can-really-help-sick-children

There is nothing wrong with treating some symptoms with home remedies. When a doctor looks better the child – for parents, usually have a feeling. “As a parent, one can assess when the child is unusually different than usual: grayer, lethargic or whinerish,” says pediatrician Andreas Volbracht. If parents feel uncomfortable about their child, they should trust their instincts. “It’s pretty well studied that parents’ concerns are consistent with the severity of the disease,” he says.

For mild ailments, there is a whole range of resources available in almost every family household. An overview:

  1. Fever: Kahl recommends lowering fever only from 39.5 degrees. “Fever has a stimulating effect on the immune system.” Only if children have had a febrile spasm, parents must act the same. Try it first with calf wrap: A dipped in water and wrung thin cloth comes to the lower leg and is packed with a towel again. The water should not be too cold, says Andrea Hagen-Herpay from the midwife association. “Just cool, hand-cold water, which does not scare me if I keep my hand clean.” If the fever lasts more than three days, the condition worsens or if it is an infant, parents have to take the child to the doctor.
  2. Cough: Onion syrup is his favorite home remedy, says Volbracht. Add one or two peeled and diced onions with a few spoons of sugar or honey to an empty jam jar. After simmering the pieces for at least two hours, the onion syrup remains. You can dilute it with water. Children with cough may take one to two tablespoons several times a day. “It causes muscle relaxation in the bronchial muscles. This dissolves the muscular cramping of the respiratory tract, “says Volbracht.
  3. Earache: The onion performs well even with slight earache. Put the pieces of onion in a teabag and put them in front of your ear. “It takes a bit of the tension pain from the eardrum,” says Volbracht. If the pain does not diminish or high fever occurs, a doctor’s visit is advisable.
  4. Runny nose: Instead of decongesting nose drops, children with a blocked nose sometimes also use a simple saline solution. If you do not want to make it yourself, you can buy finished ampoules from the pharmacy. Midwife Hagen-Herpay drips a droplet into her nose even in the case of cuddly babies. This cools and moisturizes.
  5. Tummy-ache: Children solve many problems over the belly, says Hagen-Herpay. Belly-pain is therefore not always due to a problem in the abdomen. A light massage, as well as hot water bottle or cherry stone pillows, usually have a calming effect. Abdominal pain with fever, on the other hand, is a case for the doctor. In case of a gastrointestinal infection, it is especially important to compensate with plenty of drinking the fluid loss. An electrolyte solution can be made by parents themselves by giving dextrose and a pinch of salt to the baby’s favorite tea. “Bigger children also accept black tea,” says Kahl. “It has a healing effect on the inflamed intestinal mucosa.”
  6. Sores and bruises: “In cases of inflammation, compression and bruising, in the case of harmless insect bites – whenever there is heat in the soft tissues and pain, quark is good,” says Stange. Best cold from the fridge, it is applied directly to the painful area. The effect is similar to a cooling pack. “Only that the contact is even better, it gets to the skin well, is very good modellable and also sticks well.” Superficial abrasions, however, only clean. “Just let water run over it, the dirt is gone, and then let the wound dry,” advises Kahl.

 

 

Not all sleep problems inevitably end in a sleep disorder. Most people sleep better and sometimes not so well. However, if you are lying awake regularly when you are about to sleep, there is a suspicion of developing sleep disturbance.

If you have persistent sleep problems with no obvious cause, you should go to a doctor as soon as possible. Your first contact person is your family doctor. In no case should you be put off in practice with a recipe for sleeping pills? Sleep aids are often the shortest route to sleep disorder. Find a doctor who takes time to consult. In many places, you will find doctors who specialize in sleep medicine. Your health insurance company can also help you in your search for a doctor with experience in sleep medicine.

The cycle of sleep disorders

Sustained sleep problems sometimes lead to a cycle of sleep disturbances, which is increasingly solidifying. Nocturnal pondering or an irregular sleep pattern, for example, help you to fall asleep and sleep through, resulting in fatigue and loss of performance. Tired and harried we get easily under pressure, we feel irritable or overwhelmed. Anger or stress, in turn, encourages nocturnal pondering, difficulty falling asleep or an irregular sleep pattern.

The entry into the cycle of sleep disorders usually goes unnoticed. A regular sleep rhythm, sleep rituals or relaxation techniques help to avoid the cycle of sleep disorders or to get out of the circulation. In general, however, this is only possible at an early stage of sleep disorders. With persistent sleep disturbances medical and/or psychological assistance is expedient.

Medicine-For-Sleep-Disorder-and-Sleep-Problems

Causes of sleep disorders

Sleep disorders can have many causes. For example, women often experience sleep disorders during menopause – or during pregnancy. Teenagers are particularly bad at puberty. In these cases, hormonal changes cause sleep disorders. A thyroid dysfunction or many other diseases favor sleep disorders, as do many medications. Before a targeted treatment of sleep disorders, therefore, other possible causes of sleep problems should be excluded.

Diagnosis of sleep disorders

If self-help with regular sleep patterns, sleep rituals, and other sleep-promoting measures do not result in a good night’s sleep, you should consult a doctor. The treatment of insomnia is easier the earlier a diagnosis is made. Treating sleep disorders is often much easier than many people believe. Sleeping pills should play only a minor role in the treatment of sleep disorders and be used as short as possible in each case.

A continuation of the outpatient medical diagnosis can be done inpatient in a so-called sleep laboratory. Sleep is usually monitored for two nights with numerous sensors at these sleep medical wards. For example, an EEG is recorded to monitor the course of sleep phases and the nocturnal activity of the brain. The sleep laboratory can often provide further evidence for the treatment of sleep disorders.

Therapy of sleep disorders

A combination of medication (if not dispensable) and behavioral training has been proven to treat sleep disorders. So-called sleep training is all about overcoming negative thoughts and experiences about sleep and finding a regular sleep rhythm.

Frequent sleep disorders

Sleep disorder, difficulty sleeping, sleep apnea with heavy snoring, and Restless Legs Syndrome are the most common causes of disturbed sleep. But other diseases affect sleep. Typical examples are depression, cardiovascular disease, and menopausal symptoms.

Insomnia – difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep

Doctors refer to sleep disorders as insomnia. Among them, various forms of falling asleep and staying asleep are summarized. The primary insomnia is any sleep disorder in which there is no reason for sleep problems. In the case of secondary sleep or sleep disorders, however, clear triggers are visible, such as:

  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system, hormonal dysfunction, cancer, pain or rheumatism
  • mental or neurological disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, dementia or neurosis
  • traumatizing experiences
  • Noise, light or shift work and jet lag
  • Abuse or side effect of drugs
  • Drugs and alcohol.

Sleep apnea – respiratory arrest in snorers

Sleep apnea or sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by a nocturnal respiratory arrest in snorers. The respiratory arrest can last up to about one minute. But even shorter dropouts worsen the oxygen supply dramatically. Physicians assume that untreated sleep apnea shortens life expectancy by about 10 years. Sleep apnea is usually diagnosed by sleep apnea for repeated respiratory bursts of more than 10 seconds. Short respiratory arrest during sleep is considered non-morbid.

Contrary to popular belief, sleep apnea is not a domain of men. Experts predict 800,000 sleep apnea cases among middle-aged people in Germany. Two-thirds of them are actually men – but the last third is snoring women.

Sleep apnea is in urgent need of treatment. If you have a suspicion, please contact your doctor.

Restless legs – restless legs syndrome

Unexplained leg movement and physical restlessness are typical symptoms of Restless Legs, the restless legs syndrome. The causes of this sleep disorder are largely unknown.

 

Very hot tea can promote the development of esophageal cancer: anyone who regularly drinks more than 0.7 liters of tea at a temperature of at least 60 degrees, has a significantly increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus. This is the conclusion of an Iranian study led by Farhad Islami of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, which is featured in the International Journal of Cancer.

Evidence of such a relationship has been around for some time. In 2018, a research group at the University of Beijing found that, in addition to smokers, tea drinkers, in particular, are often affected by esophageal cancer.

too-hot-drinks-can-increase-the-risk-of-esophageal-cancer

Therefore, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies “drinking very hot drinks at over 65 degrees Celsius” as “possibly carcinogenic”. The Cancer Information Service of the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) also warns against very hot drinks on its website in connection with esophageal cancer.

The researchers around Islami now present results on a very large database: For their investigation, they collected data from more than 50,000 women and men in the northern Iranian province of Golestan between 2004 and 2017. The participants were tracked on average for a good ten years. In addition to the exact circumstances of tea consumption, the researchers recorded socioeconomic data and dietary habits.

Trained employees visited the study participants in their apartments. To determine the preferred drinking temperature, two cups of tea were poured in each case. The employee put a thermometer into a cup. When the temperature of the tea had dropped to 75 degrees Celsius, participants were asked to drink the tea. If the tea was still too hot for them, they were asked again at 70, 65 and 60 degrees to drink it.

Altered genetic material due to inflammation

The preferred drinking temperature was noted. In previous studies, participants themselves reported how hot their tea is when they drink it – a procedure that prone to error.

During the study period, there were 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma among the participants, one of the two most common types of esophageal cancer. After adjusting for possible other factors such as smoking or alcohol consumption, there were statistically clear relationships between the temperature of the tea and the risk of cancer. It goes without saying that the shorter the time between pouring and drinking with the respective tea drinker, the greater the risk of cancer.

As for the possible cause, the researchers write that the hot fluid can cause injury, resulting in inflammatory processes in the tissue of the esophagus. In turn, the genetic material can be changed directly or the formation of carcinogenic substances can be increased – with a tumor as a possible consequence.

Even Stephen Evans of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who was not involved in the study, suspected heat injuries as the cause. Also in the microwave heated jam is known to cause injury to the esophagus. “It is possible that the injury leads to cell changes and thus to cancer”.

 

 

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is increasingly found in gay men, especially HIV-positive ones. Unlike hepatitis A and B, there is no vaccine and even a cured disease does not protect against further infection. Thanks to new therapies, however, hepatitis C can today be cured in three months.

Brief information on Hepatitis C

  • Hepatitis C is transmitted by blood, for example during sex, but especially when splitting syringes during drug use.
  • Without treatment, the disease often becomes chronic and can have serious health consequences.
  • In most cases, a disease with hepatitis C can be cured with therapy within three months.
  • Unlike hepatitis A & B, where there is no vaccine. You can always get infected with hepatitis C.
  • This is how you protect yourself: Clean syringes during drug use (“sharing nothing”) and gloves when fisting. With long and violent sex is sometimes blood in the game – then protect condoms.

is-hepatitis-c-curable

Protection

Hepatitis C is often detected too late and can lead to severe liver damage. She is diagnosed with a blood test. Because hepatitis C is transmitted by blood, you can follow a few simple protection rules.

There is no vaccine against hepatitis C, and even after a cure, you can get infected again. You can protect yourself with the following measures:

Only use your own accessories when using drugs. If blood can be involved in sex practices, gloves protect against fisting or condoms while having sex.

When having sex

  • Do not share sex toys like dildos with others. It is best to always put on a new condom or thoroughly clean or disinfect the toys.
  • When fucking protect condoms, take for each partner a new condom. If you want to fuck without a condom, you should at least take more lube than usual, but less poppers – then it is not so easy to bleed.
  • Do you have more than ten sex partners a year and/or do you have tough sex practices? Check your hepatitis C once a year.

When fisting

  • Use gloves when felling – take a new glove for each new partner. Use a separate lubricant pot for each fist partner.

When substance use

  • If you inject anabolic steroids or other substances, do not share the needle with others. Incidentally, this also applies to razor blades and toothbrushes. Make sure tattoos and piercings are hygienic.
  • Do you take cocaine or speed, just pull your line through your own tube? Coke and speed attack the nasal mucosa and lead to minor bleeding there – a tiny amount of blood on the tube is enough for infection with HCV!

How is Hepatitis C transmitted?

The hepatitis C virus is transmitted by blood. Even the tiniest traces of blood, which may not be visible at all, can lead to an infection.

Transmission during sex is rare in HIV negatives. The risk is probably increased when it comes to bleeding during sex, for example when fisting or violent, long fucking. HCV-containing blood could also be transmitted in the joint use of toys or in group sex, if one guy has sex or fists several others (with or without a condom).

Infections occur especially when injecting drugs such as ketamine, crystal or heroin, but also when snorting (injecting drugs through the nose) when splitting syringes or other accessories such as tubes: HCV can “survive” in blood leftovers for up to three weeks.

Symptoms

In more than three-quarters of cases, acute hepatitis C is not noticed at all, which means that there are no or only mild symptoms or complaints. In about 10 to 20% of cases, flu-like symptoms occur, sometimes it can also cause yellowing of the eyes and skin. Usually, the hepatitis is discovered but only at a blood test.

About three-quarters of the infections become chronic. Most chronic hepatitis C infections run for years or decades asymptomatic or symptom-poor (with fatigue, abdominal pain, fatigue and recurrent transient elevations in liver function), and even chronic hepatitis can heal spontaneously.

In about one-third of untreated chronic infections, there is an aggressive course with a connective tissue remodeling of the liver (fibrosis), in about 20 percent of infected people after years or decades to cirrhosis with increasing loss of liver function and increased risk of liver cell cancer.

How is hepatitis C treated?

Since acute hepatitis C infection in most cases does not cause disease symptoms, it often goes unnoticed and subsequently untreated.

Hepatitis C is curable in most cases within three months of therapy. Since 2014 there are new drugs that are well tolerated. One tablet is taken once a day.

Important: Every chronic hepatitis C infection should be treated! Sooner or later, the virus will damage the liver.

The therapy is carried out by specialized doctors. These are e.g. HIV specialist practices and physicians for gastrointestinal diseases (gastroenterologists).

 

 

The use of the term “autism” comes from Greek which means “to be very self-reliant”. By Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger, the term was first used for children with a profound developmental disorder. Autistic disorders can be very different. Today we speak of autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

People with a disorder from the autism spectrum perceive their environment differently (autistic perception). They can barely empathize with other people and communicate adequately with them. They can not recognize the mood of their counterpart from his face. Contacts are rather avoided. They are happy to deal with a specialty. They have difficulty adjusting to the new and the desire to make everyday routines always the same (rituals). Often they are oriented towards details and have difficulty comprehending a situation holistically. In many cases, those affected are rather awkward in their movements.

Over- or hypersensitivity to light, smells, sounds or touch is common. They show z. As a fascination for light or shiny surfaces, as anxiety reactions to special noises, as a fondness for intense body contacts or as a conspicuous Beriechen or feeling of surfaces and objects. These over- or under-sensitivities (the autistic perception) mean that children or adults of the autism spectrum have great problems understanding their environment as a meaningful whole. Achieving learning success is made more difficult.

causes-of-autism-spectrum-disorder

These autistic characteristics can be very pronounced – they then impede the development of a child significantly and usually occur in the first three years of life. In this case, one speaks of early childhood autism.

If the characteristics are less clearly recognizable, they are often noticeable later on in the environment of the person or person himself. The diagnosis then made is also known as Asperger syndrome. The symptoms vary greatly from person to person and change in their expression during the course of development.

In general:

The causes of autism spectrum disorders are still not fully understood. Certain factors play a role in development. Genetic influences and biological processes before, during and after birth can impair the development of the brain and trigger the autism spectrum disorder. It does not arise from parenting or family conflicts. With targeted support and support, people with autism can develop their skills and be better integrated into society.

Until about 1980, severely affected children with early childhood autism were diagnosed as “autistic”. With the concept of autism spectrum disorders, the diagnosis was made more frequently. Recent studies show that about 1% of the population is affected by an autism spectrum disorder (boys or men more often than girls and women).

“Some sounds hurt my ears as if the drill hits a nerve at the dentist.”

– Temple Grandin

Forms of the autism spectrum

Early childhood autism

The children described by the American child psychiatrist Leo Kanner in 1943 were diagnosed with childhood autism. Therefore one knows the name Kanner autism. Kanner’s description and definition have long shaped the image of childhood autism.

The affected children have abnormalities in three areas:

  • In language and communication: z. Late or missing speech development or loss of existing speech, frequent repetition of words or sentences.
  • Abnormalities of social interactions: z. B. Special features in eye contact, facial expressions, and gestures, little interest in other people or awkward forms of contact, lack of understanding of processes within groups.
  • Repetitive, restricted, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities:

B. Turning on wheels of toy cars, stringing objects, conspicuous hand or body movements, sticking to habits, trouble with program changes.

First indications are often available from the age of 12 months. With 2 – 2 1/2 years, a reliable diagnosis can usually be made. Children with early childhood autism often show a general developmental backlog.

Atypical autism

In children with an autistic disorder, the symptoms are not present in all three areas mentioned, they have only become clear later or not very pronounced, it is called atypical autism.

In children with early childhood or atypical autism, the general level of development and their functional level in everyday life is of great importance. One differentiates, therefore “high” and “low” functioning autism, the border lies with an IQ of approximately 70.

Asperger syndrome

The Viennese pediatrician Hans Asperger wrote about children, who especially had big problems to find their way in groups.

Children with Asperger’s Syndrome develop normal linguistic and cognitive development during the first years of life. Their problems often only become clear when they spend more time with other children. They also show abnormalities in different areas:

  • Impairment of social behavior: eg. For example, reduced interest in peers, difficulties in putting oneself in others, often awkward social interactions with other people.
  • Speech and speech disorders: z. For example, a prudent, pedantic language or a special speech melody, literal understanding and thus trouble with irony or puns.
  • Abnormalities in nonverbal communication: z. B. in eye contact or in the use of facial expressions and gestures.
  • Distinctive interests that take a lot of time, that are repetitively exercised and often have a more technical character. Preference for formulas, timetables, technical details, historical data or the like; Girls and women are also often interested in people with special gifts or for individual species.

In addition, there are often difficulties to adapt to new and the desire to make everyday routines always the same (rituals). In many cases, those affected are awkward in their movements. They are often hypersensitive to bright light, special sounds smell or touch.

In contrast to the other autistic forms, the problems of the affected children or adolescents are often only apparent in kindergarten or at school – sometimes even as adults.

The perception and thinking of people with Asperger syndrome are very different from that of other “neurotypical” people. They are able to quickly get an overview of a new situation, while “Aspergers” (as people with Asperger’s Syndrome call themselves) often perceive many details and then try to identify a system behind them. Often they also have a very good memory for these details.

New classification of autism spectrum disorders

Many studies have shown that professionals usually agree on when to make an autism diagnosis. The American autism specialists have decided to only use the diagnosis “Autism Spectrum Disorder” (ASS) in their DSM-5 diagnostic system. In order to describe the affected persons in more detail, it is noted whether an ASD with or without speech disorder, mental disability or, for example, epilepsy exists. The severity of the autistic disorder is described by the person’s need for support (low, medium or high). The ICD-10 diagnostic system used by the WHO and in Switzerland is currently being revised. It is not yet clear whether ICD-11 will take on all the new features of DSM-5.

The other side of autism

So far, the majority of the speech was about difficulties and problems that autistic people have to deal with in everyday life. But they also have many strengths.

People from the autistic spectrum are usually honest and open and direct in their communication. Thoughts and lies are alien to them. If you are interested in a topic or activity, you can study it with great enthusiasm and perseverance and acquire a lot of knowledge and skills. Associated activities perform them conscientiously and concentrated. For works that demand accuracy and a sense of detail, people with autism have a good chance of evolving. Promising is the connection of the special interest with education and profession.

 

The silent majority

These words are always and used when it comes to the relatives, life companions, spouses, close caregivers or children of alcoholics. (Where the word co-alcoholism is outdated and could even create the suspicion that spouse himself had a problem). It is a clear fact that these people suffer from the addictive disorder of their partner’s alcohol sometimes more than the alcoholic himself who does not even recognize the heap of rubble in front of him.

No one gets sick without the participation of a very specific environment. Symptom carrier as well as co-dependent (co = accomplice) condition and fit like the key to the lock. Both are equally disturbed and learn only about their disturbed. They are doing everything they can to keep their system going, no matter how miserable, because that’s what they think is their life.

spouse-of-an-addict-in-recovery

Dependent sufferers such as co-dependent, disturbed as co-disturbed are like Hehler and Stehler. Only when one of them “flies” can it come to a change (healing, recovery) of the other.

What is co-dependency?

Co-dependency has been a new term in the environment of an alcohol or drug addict for many years, generally describing the condition in which the partner of an addicted person is. Thus, every person can become addicted to co-dependence, regardless of age, gender, social status, level of knowledge, etc. Many other addictions can also cause co-dependency.

If you “dissect” the word co-dependency, the words “co” and “dependency” will remain. If one uses the word “with” for the word “Co”, then the word “Mitabhängigkeit” comes up and describes this behavior a little better. With a dependency, we denote a state of no longer getting rid of an addictive substance or substance addict.

It is a disease!

It is important to emphasize that what we call co-dependency is, in fact, a disease that occurs in many forms and results from a disease process that is closely linked to the social process.

Since we have not talked about co-dependency until not too long ago, we do not yet have a comprehensive theory of this new concept. The special thing about it is that it was coined by those affected themselves, i. from people who are, or are, admittedly self-co-addicts – not professionals who have a purely theoretical interest in the disease.

Disease

Our knowledge of the course of co-dependency is used almost exclusively in the field of addiction, in connection with the addiction of alcohol. It was also recognized that the risk of relapse was much greater among the alcoholics, who returned to an untreated family. Namely, such a family further favors the search by finding excuses for the addict so as not to have to give up their own co-dependency. Therefore, search experts also work with families to promote the recovery of the addicted person.

Therapy for the affected family

The families were therefore fully informed about alcoholism and pointed out that they themselves are in need of treatment. – yes, be sick. How her illness was and how to treat her, however, remained a book with seven seals.

Like any disease, it has a beginning (the point at which the person no longer masters his or her life – health, mental or emotional), a predictable course (the slowly progressing emotional, physical, psychological and mental decline) and – if not treated properly will – a foreseeable end (often death).

We know today that co-dependence causes physical discomfort, e.g. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ulcers, high blood pressure, and even cancer. Often, co-addicts die before the addict.

This finding in the field of addiction treatment has led to the recognition of co-dependency as a serious problem and as a disease with its own symptoms.

 

To determine and timely treatment of gynecological diseases in women often prescribed an analysis of hormones. In this case, the most commonly performed determination of the level of luteinizing hormone, progesterone, prolactin.

Luteinizing hormone (LH) belongs to adrenal hormones synthesized by the anterior pituitary gland. It is this hormone that stimulates the production of estrogens in the female body and regulates the secretion of progesterone and is directly involved in the formation of the yellow body.

Such an analysis for female sex hormones is mandatory if:

  • Decreased libido;
  • amenorrhea;
  • Infertility;
  • endometriosis;
  • Miscarriage;
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome;
  • Sexual Infantilism

Also often associated with such an analysis to determine the effectiveness of hormone therapy.

Like any submission of tests for the definition of female hormones, LH analysis requires preparation. Before taking the test at the level of LH, 72 hours before the procedure, women are advised to completely rule out physical activity and exercise. Blood is only taken on an empty stomach and on the 7th day of the menstrual cycle.

analysis-for-hormones-in-women

Normal indicators of this hormone for women differ and depend on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, in the follicular phase, its concentration is 1.1-11.6 mU/ml, in the ovulation phase – 17-77. In the luteal phase, the concentration level does not exceed 14.7. It should also be noted that the intake of oral contraceptives reduces the level of this hormone to 8.0 mU/ml.

What is an analysis for progesterone?

Among the analyzes for female hormones, most often an analysis is performed to determine the level of progesterone in the blood. It is produced directly by the yellow body and is acutely necessary for the normal course of pregnancy. Progesterone prepares the preparation of the uterine endometrium, with which the fertilized egg can be implanted.

Such a blood test for female hormones may be prescribed if:

  • Violation of the menstrual cycle;
  • Determining the causes of infertility;
  • Assessment of the functional capacity of the placenta in the second trimester of the current pregnancy;
  • Diagnosis of an unbearable pregnancy.

The analysis is performed on the 22nd to 23rd day of menstruation of a woman’s cycle, while direct blood is done in the morning on an empty stomach. In cases where the girl is not tested in the morning, the fence can be done during the day, but not earlier than 6 hours after eating.

the hormone levels are different: 0.32-2.23 nmol/L – in the follicular phase and 6.99-56.63, – of the luteal.

What is the purpose of analyzing prolactin in the body?

The hormone prolactin participates directly in the process of formation and development of the mammary glands and stimulates the production of milk in them during lactation.

Such an analysis will be assigned if:

  • galactorrhea;
  • cyclic pain in the mammary glands;
  • breast disease;
  • Violation of ovulation and its absence;
  • Absence of monthly;
  • Diagnosis of infertility;
  • Injury of lactation after birth;

Before you take the test, the woman should exclude for one-day sexual contacts, as well as thermal influence on an organism (a bath, a sauna). In addition, stress conditions directly affect the level of the hormone prolactin in the blood.

A blood sample will be for 3 hours after the blood-as the woman woke up. Immediately before the procedure, you need to rest for 10-15 minutes in front of the office and calm down. The normal level of prolactin in women is 109-557 mU/l.

Thus, which tests are also performed for female hormones, a preparatory preparation for them is necessary.

 

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